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Major geographical zones include the West Siberian Plain and the Central Siberian Plateau.
Eastern and central Sakha comprises numerous north-south mountain ranges of various ages.
Siberia stretches southwards from the Arctic Ocean to the hills of north-central Kazakhstan and to the national borders of Mongolia and China.
With an area of 13.1 million square kilometres (5,100,000 sq mi), Siberia accounts for 77% of Russia's land area, but it is home to approximately 36 million people—27% of the country's population.
The proto-Mongol Khitan people also occupied parts of the region.
In 630 the Khan of Sibir in the vicinity of modern Tobolsk was known as a prominent figure With the breakup of the Golden Horde, the autonomous Khanate of Sibir formed in the late-15th century.
Many Gulag camps operated in extremely remote areas of northeastern Siberia.At these low elevations are numerous valleys, many of them deep and covered with larch forest, except in the extreme north where the tundra dominates. The active layer tends to be less than one metre deep, except near rivers.The highest point in Siberia is the active volcano Klyuchevskaya Sopka, on the Kamchatka Peninsula. The West Siberian Plain consists mostly of Cenozoic alluvial deposits and is somewhat flat.This is equivalent to an average population density of about 3 inhabitants per square kilometre (7.8/sq mi) (approximately equal to that of Australia), making Siberia one of the most sparsely populated regions on Earth.If it were a country by itself, it would still be the largest country in area, but in population it would be the world's 35th-largest and Asia's 14th-largest.